The Stereoscope, also known as a stereopticon or stereo viewer, was a popular way to vicariously travel beyond one’s home without leaving the comfort of the parlor during the late eighteen hundreds and early nineteen hundreds. A “traveler” would simply slip a stereo card into the viewer and the entire world would be at their beckoned call.
A stereoscope is a simple device with a handle, a card holder which can be slid forward and backward to focus the scene, and a housing containing two lenses through which the viewer looks. Each scene consists of two photographs, taken from slightly different angles, which corresponds to the spacing of the eyes. The photographer would set up a special camera with two lenses, each focused onto a separate section of film. One image would be a view seen by the right eye, and the second image would be what the left eye saw. When the two views were combined on a stereo card and viewed through the stereoscope, the photos were merged in the brain, to form a realistic 3-D image.
The first stereoscope was patented by Sir Charles Wheatstone in 1838, but it was a cumbersome contraption; and it wasn’t until photography came on the scene shortly thereafter, that the two inventions were united to provide startlingly realistic images for the viewer. Oliver Wendell Holmes improved upon the viewer; and for Americans this form or entertainment remained popular from 1881 until the late 1930s, when its impact was supplanted by the movies.
The stereoscope was commonly found in middle and upper class parlors and was a popular way to entertain friends on a Sunday afternoon.
Stereo slides were available depicting scenes from all corners of the earth. The pyramids of Egypt were popular, as were breathtaking scenes from Yellowstone Park. Viewers could travel to Chicago, New York, or San Francisco by simply slipping another card into the viewer. The Chicago World’s Fair in 1892 was a popular topic as was the St. Louis fair of 1904. Humorous slides were also staged depicting puns and mildly risqué scenes.
As the technique was improved, local small town photographers began producing slides for tourists in their area. Hundreds of images were captured of the famous Wisconsin Dells, and Devil’s Lake was also included in the collections. Stereo images were produced and distributed by railroad companies to induce vacationers to take a train to view the real thing. Families could also hire a photographer to make a stereo slide of their family, farm or home.
The stereoscope was a forerunner of the View-Master with its circular disks, which was popular during the 1950s and ‘60s.
The Sauk County Historical Society has a number of stereopticon viewers, along with several hundred slides, depicting many area attractions.